agroforestry definition

Agroforestry and various systems of agroforestry definition|classification|advantages new revised| free

Please follow and like us:

Agroforestry Definition

Agroforestry is a dynamic, ecologically based, natural resource management system that, through the integration of trees on farms and in the agricultural landscape, diversified and sustains production for increased social, economic, and environmental benefits for land users at all levels. In agroforestry systems, woody perennials are deliberately introduced as trees and shrubs along with crops and livestock.

Classification of Agroforestry Systems

Agri-Silvicultural Systems

It is a land-use system where woody perennials (trees, shrubs, palms, bamboo among others) are deliberately used on the same land management units as agricultural crops, it intentionally combines agriculture and forestry to create integrated and sustainable land-use systems.

Silvi-pastoral System

This system combines trees and grasses or legumes or grass-legume combinations in the same unit of land. The trees may be timber value trees or fodder trees or multipurpose trees. In this system, the understorey between tree species and root-free zones between trees are utilized for the cultivation of grasses or legumes or grass-legume combinations which provides two-tier grazing. Livestock such as cattle, buffaloes, horses, sheep, and goats can be integrated into this silvopasture. The fodder yield and carrying capacity of silvipastures depend on various factors such as tree/understorey fodder species and various environmental factors prevailing in that region.

Fodder bank: Blocks of forage plants especially trees deliberately planted to alleviate fodder shortages, particularly during dry seasons. Community fodder banks are a good alternate

Live Fence/ Boundary plantation: Live fences are widely spaced, single lines of woody plants that are regularly pruned back and used instead of metal or wooden posts for supporting barbed wire, bamboo or other materials.

Hedge-row intercropping systems: Alley cropping or hedgerow intercropping is an agroforestry practice in which perennial, usually leguminous trees or shrubs are grown
simultaneously with an arable crop.

Tree plantation + Animal grazing systems: This is the deliberate integration of trees and grazing livestock operations on the same land. These systems are intensively managed for both forest products and forage, providing both short and long-term income sources.

Indigenous cut and carry systems: Cut and carry in agroforestry is a system in which fast-growing trees are harvested once or more per year to provide fodder for livestock or mulch and green manure for soil improvement. Using multipurpose and nitrogen-fixing trees for cut-and-carry systems can maintain or improve animal productivity and sustainability in terms of soil health and fertility. Important management factors for a cut-and-carry agroforestry system include cutting (Pollarding) height, frequency of cutting, dry season management, and replacement of nutrients lost from the removal of harvested material.

Wildlife silvopastures: Silvopastures can erase the stark line that is so often drawn between field and forest. Ideally, grasslands, shrub lands and deep forests are needed to
support a wide variety of wildlife species. Farmlands usually lack structural diversity, which is critical for birds and migrating animals.

Horti-Pastoral Systems

This system integrates pasture (grass and/or legumes) and fruit trees to fulfill the gap between the demand and supply of fruit, fodder, and fuel wood by utilizing moderately degraded land. The success of a horti-pastoral system depends on the selection of fruit trees and pasture species. Horti-pastoral system is one of the best and most economic alternative systems for the rainfed area. It can supply fruits for humans and fodder for animals and thus help in bridging the wide gap between the supply and demand of fruit and fodder. In arid regions of northeastern agroclimatic zone of Tamil Nadu, this system has been propagated with success. Desmanthus Virgatus cultivated under coconut, guava, and as the sole crop in four harvests yielded 51.28t/ha, 79.16t/ha, and 81.12t/ha respectively. Stylosanthes hamata, under coconut trees in
the hortipastoral system yielded 23.5 tonnes per hectare. Crotalaria juncea (Sunhemp) under coconut trees yielded of 5 tonnes/hectare.

Agri-Horti-Silviculture

This system is defined as growing of agricultural crops, trees and fruit trees or ornamental trees or vegetables/flowers together on the same land at the same time. This system is common in home gardens of Nepal, where fodder trees such as Badahar, Tanki, Ipil Ipil, etc., timber and firewood species such as Sissoo, Eucalyptus, Baikaino, etc., are grown around fruit orchards that act as shelter belt, and agriculture crops such as ginger, turmeric, yam, colocasia, and vegetables are grown under fruit trees.

Homestead Agroforestry Systems

This system is a unique combination of trees, shrubs, vegetables, animals, fish ponds, and humans functioning as an ecosystem and maintaining the diversity of life. In this system, deliberate planting and management of multipurpose trees and shrubs are followed in intimate association with annual and perennial agricultural crops and, livestock, within the compounds of individual houses. In-home gardens in Kerala, the dominant trees include coconut, areca nut, and para-rubber, and a large number of multipurpose trees such as mango, jack, teak, cashew, tamarind, Erythrina spp., and Glyricidia sepium. In addition, the home gardens also grow cassava, turmeric, small gardens, small cardamom, and black pepper. Sometimes seasonal crops including red gram and vegetables are also cultivated in the areas where sunlight is available. Ruminants’ production in home gardens or pastures under coconut is based on the semi-intensive management system with tethered grazing of natural feed resources under coconut and other perennials.

Advantages of Agroforestry Systems

  • Agroforestry provides certain important environmental benefits, general ecological benefits, and specific on-site benefits.
  • It reduces the pressure on forests. It causes more efficient recycling of nutrients.
  • It causes a reduction of surface run-off, nutrient leaching, and soil erosion through the impending effect of tree roots and stems.
  • Improvement of microclimates, such as lowering of soil surface temperature and reduction of the evaporation of soil moisture is brought about through a combination of mulching and shading.
  • Agroforestry systems on croplands/farm land bring significant economic benefits to the farmer, the community, the region, or the nation through the production of food, fuel wood, fodder fertilizer, and timber.
  • Sustained production of fodder through agroforestry systems helps overcome fodder scarcity, provides fodder of high quality, improves livestock productivity, and augments farm income due to improved and sustained productivity

World agroforestry deals with agroforestry as a whole in a global context.

đź“ŚCritical stage of irrigation for important crops | Table download as pdf ICAR exams expected questions 2023

FAQ

What is agroforestry?

Agroforestry is a dynamic, ecologically based, natural resource management system that, through the integration of trees on farms and in the agricultural landscape, diversified and sustains production for increased social, economic, and environmental benefits for land users at all levels. In agroforestry systems, woody perennials are deliberately introduced as trees and shrubs along with crops and livestock.

Where is central agroforestry research institute located?

Central agroforestry research institute is located at Jhansi, Uttar Pradesh

Where is the International Centre for Research on Agroforestry located ?

The international Centre for Research on Agroforestry located is located at Nairobi, Kenya

Please follow and like us:
Click to rate this post!
[Total: 0 Average: 0]

Leave a Comment

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *

Scroll to Top